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托福聽力考試陌生話題之美國政治

作者:  2021-11-04 15:41:41  閱讀量:

新航道

在2019年8月份托福考試改革之后,在聽力測試的話題內容中除了常見的藝術,生物,天文學和心理學之外,偶爾也會出現一些比較陌生或考生不曾接觸的話題內容。例如:物理學中的愛因斯坦相對論,政治科學中的美國政治結構等都是讓考生比較頭疼的話題。由于這些冷門話題的層出不窮,本期學科知識就帶大家探討下關于American Political System的背景知識以及跟政治系統有關的相關知識拓展。

 

一,相關背景補充

The United States is a federal country, the form of political organization for the presidential republic, the implementation of the separation of powers and balances of the political system and the two-party system.

 

美國是聯邦制國 家,政權組織形式為總統共和制,實行三權分立與制衡相結合的政治制度和兩黨制的政黨制度。

 

The United States political system was built on The Declaration of Independence article. The Declaration was ratified by the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, which later became Independence Day.

 

美國的政治制度建立在《獨立宣言》的基礎上。《獨立宣言》于1776年7月4日在費城舉行的第二屆大陸會議上獲得批準,后來成為獨立日。

 

The Declaration of Independence consists of four parts. The first part is the preface, which sets forth the purpose of the Declaration. The second part elaborates the political system thought, namely the natural right theory and the sovereignty in the people thought; The third part enumerates the crimes of the British oppression of the colonial people in North America, explaining that the colonial people were forced to take up arms under the intolerable circumstances, to fight for the legitimacy and justice of independence; In the fourth part, and in the last part, the United States of America solemnly declares its independence.

 

《獨立宣言》由四部分組成。第 一部分是前言,闡述了宣言的目的。第二部分闡述了政治制度思想,即自然權利理論和人民思想中的主權;第三部分列舉了英國對北美殖民地人民壓迫的罪行,說明殖民地人民被迫在不可容忍的情況下拿起武器,為獨立的合法性和正義而戰;在第四部分和后一部分,美利堅合眾國莊嚴宣布了它的獨立。

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U.S. House of Representative(眾議院)

The Speaker of the House of Representatives is elected by the members of the House and is traditionally the leader of the majority party. However, the Leader of the Majority is held by the second most important member of the same party. According to U.S. presidential succession rules, the speaker of the House of Representatives is the third most important political leader in the line of succession after the vice president, who also serves as president of the Senate.

 

眾議院議長由議員選舉產生,傳統上為多數黨之領導人。然而多數黨領 袖(leader of the majority)另由該多數黨在院內的第二重要議員擔任。據美國總統繼位條例,眾議院議長繼任總統的順序僅次于兼任參議院議長的副總統,是政壇上第三重要的領 袖人物。

 

Many of the framers of the Constitution sought to make the Senate (initially elected by state legislatures) a counterweight to the popularly elected House of Representatives. Thus the "advice and consent" authority (such as the power to ratify treaties) is exercised by the Senate alone. The House of Representatives also has its own powers: the power to initiate revenue bills, to impeach government officials, and to elect a president in the event of an electoral college deadlock. However, all of these powers can be counter-checked by the Senate.

 

憲法制定者中有很多人企圖讓參議院(一開始是由州議會選舉)成為眾議院(公民直選)的制衡機構。于是“建議與同意”權(如批準條約的權力)授權僅由參議院單獨行使。眾議院也有其獨有的權力:倡議歲入法案之權、彈劾政府官員、以及在選舉人團僵持不下時選舉總統。然而,所有這些權力都可由參議院制衡(counter-check)。

 

United States Senate(參議院)

The Senate is admittedly more prudent than the House; The Senate has fewer seats and longer terms, allowing academic and partisan views to be more detached from public opinion than the House. The Senate has several powers listed in the Constitution that are not delegated to the House of Representatives. The most important of these is that the President of the United States, when ratifying treaties or appointing important persons, must "take the advice and approval of the Senate" (Chapter 1 of the U.S. Constitution).

 

參議院公認較眾議院更為審慎;參議員名額較少而任期較長,容許學院派看法與黨派之見,較眾議院更容易自外于公共輿論。參議院擁有若干表列于憲法而未授予眾議院的權力。其中重要的是,美國總統批準條約或任命重要人事時,須“采酌參議院之建議并得其認可”(美國憲法第 一章)。

 

The power relationship between the federal and local governments聯邦政府和地方政府權力關系

The United States of America from 1776 to 1787 was a federal country. In 1787, the Constitution of the United States of America changed the structure of the country to a federal system. On the basis of the establishment of a unified federal government, the states still retain a wide range of autonomy.

 

1776-1787年的美國為邦聯制國 家。1787年制定的《美利堅合眾國憲法》改國 家結構形式為聯邦制,在建立統一的聯邦政權的基礎上,各州仍保有相當廣泛的自主權。

 

The Federation has the highest legislative, administrative and judicial organs, but has unified laws and laws, is the main body of international exchanges; Each state has its own constitution, laws, and government institutions; If the state constitution and laws conflict with the federal constitution and laws, the federal constitution and laws prevail over the state constitution and laws. The U.S. Constitution lists the powers enjoyed by the federal government, such as raising taxes, borrowing money, minting money, maintaining armies, conducting foreign affairs, and regulating interstate and international commerce. Other powers not enumerated in the Constitution are reserved to the states, except those expressly prohibited by the Constitution from being exercised by the states.

 

聯邦設有高的立法、行政和司法機關,但有統一的法和法律,是國際交往的主體;各州有自己的憲法、法律和政府機構;若各州的憲法和法律與聯邦憲法和法律發生沖突,聯邦憲法和法律優于州的憲法和法律。美國憲法列舉了聯邦政府享有的權力,如征稅,舉債,鑄幣,維持軍隊,主持外交,管理州際和國際貿易等。不經憲法列舉的其他權力,除非憲法明文禁止各州行使者外,一概為州政府保留。

 

The powers of a state are mainly to deal with matters within the state, such as taxing taxes in the name of the state, regulating industry, commerce and labor, organizing security forces and maintaining public order, and so on. The specific powers of the federal central and local authorities have evolved over the past 200 years.

 

州的權力主要是處理本州范圍內的事務,如以地方名義征稅,管理州內工商業和勞工,組織警衛力量和維持治安,等等。聯邦中央和地方的具體權限,200年來不斷有所變化完善。

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二,托福聽力相關真題鏈接(聽力真經6,聽力真經4和TPO材料真題)

1) Federal system聯邦制(聽力真經6 T1L2)

Professor: United States has what’s called “a federal government.” In a federal system of government, the power to make laws and regulations is divided between a national government and smaller political units – states, in this case. There are two views of how those powers interact with one another.

 

One view is called “Dual federalism.” Dual federalism holds that the national and state government both have clearly defined powers, though the national government’s power is quite limited. The other perspective is “Cooperative Federalism.” Cooperative Federalism asserts that the national government’s power over the state is not so clearly limited. In fact, it is not clearly defined. At times national and state governments work together cooperatively, but the national government can also impose its power over the states. After all, the United States Constitution spells out the power of the national government.

 

美國的政治系統由地方政府和聯邦政府組成,分別提出“雙重聯邦制”和“合作聯邦制”兩種政治觀點。針對“雙重聯邦制”認為地方政府和聯邦政府的權力是相互分離的,聯邦政府可能在權力上受制于地方政府。另外一種觀點認為美國政治是屬于“合作聯邦制”,其中描述兩者的政治權力界線比較模糊,聯邦政府可以在某些時候給地方政府施壓。

 

2)Irish Independent War/Easter Rebellion (聽力真經4 01-12)

Ireland was formally made of part of Great Britain in the Act of Union 1801, until then, Ireland had its own parliament, but, after the passing of the act, the Irish Parliament was closed down, and the Irish were given representation in the British Parliament. Over the next Century or so, various attempts were made to grant Ireland something called home rule. This basically meant that Irish Parliament would be revived, thereby giving the Irish some degree of autonomy. Unfortunately, all attempts at home rule failed.

 

This in turn led to more radical forces in Ireland starting to push for an armed insurrection to throw British out of the country. The most significant event in the Irish struggle for freedom took place in 1916 at the height of World War I. This became known as the Easter Rebellion, or the Easter Rising. They knew something was going on, but since it was Easter, they felt that nothing would happen then.

 

1801年的《聯合法案》使愛爾蘭正式成為大不列顛的一部分,在此之前,愛爾蘭有自己的議會,但法案通過后,愛爾蘭議會被關閉。在接下來的大約一個世紀里,人們做出了各種各樣的嘗試來給予愛爾蘭所謂的地方自治。不幸的是,所有國內自治的嘗試都失敗了。這反過來又導致愛爾蘭更激進的勢力開始推動武裝起義,把英國人趕出愛爾蘭。愛爾蘭爭取自由斗爭中重要的事件發生在第 一次世界大戰激烈的1916年。這被稱為復活節起義或復活節起義。

 

3)Absolutism and Feudalism(專制主義和封建主義)(聽力真經4 10-08)

Absolutism: is opposed to democracy concept, refers to a person or a handful of authoritarian regime organization form, embodies in mercy for life and hereditary throne, its are main the feature is the emperor arbitrary decision-making by an individual's dictatorship, collection of supreme power, from decision-making to exercise military and political finances have arbitrariness and informality.

 

Absolutism專制主義:是與民主政體相對立的概念,指一個人或少數幾個人獨裁的政權組織形式,體現在帝位終身制和皇位世襲制上,其主要特征是皇帝個人的專斷獨裁,集 國 家高權力于一身,從決策到行使軍政財政大權都具有獨斷性和隨意性。

 

Feudalism: A social ideology in which society is determined by human consciousness. The social form on which this ideology depends is feudal society. The concept of feudalism is: the whole country (the country) is not a public, divided into a vassal nobles, or as the Greek tribes into their own. Centralization in feudal society was a system of central contracts, local tributes, taxes, and donations, formed through wars or alliances of tribal city-states

 

Feudalism 封建主義:是一種社會意識形態,就是人的意識決定社會。這種意識形態賴以存在的社會形態便是封建社會。封建的概念是:天下(江山)不為公,分封給一個個諸侯貴族,或如希臘部落自成割據。封建社會的中央集權是通過戰爭或部落城邦的聯盟而形成一個按中央契約、地方納貢、收稅、派捐來運轉的體系

 

4)American Frontier (TPO57 Lecture 4)

The other main area of challenge by the new western historian was that turner really in their view, underestimate the role of federal government and large corporation in shaping economic life of the frontier. I mean just for instance, federal government to this day is the largest landowner of west of Mississippi river. And people’s lives when they got to the frontier were really dictated by market forces beyond, pretty much beyond their control.

 

當時美國西部的土地主要受聯邦政府控制,當地居民沒有任何的獨立和自主的權力。

 

三,話題詞匯補充

separation of powers 三權分立

two-party system 兩黨制

The Declaration of Independence 獨立宣言

congress /?kɑ??ɡr?s/ n. 國會

Independence Day 獨立日(美國國慶節7月4號)

sovereignty /?sɑ?vr?nti/ n. 主權

enumerate /??nu?m?re?t/ v. 列舉

oppression /??pre?n/ n. 壓迫手段

colonial /k??lo?ni?l/ a. 殖民的

House of Representative 眾議院

succession /s?k?se?n/ n. 繼承權;連續

elect /??lekt/ v. 選舉

ratify /?r?t?fa?/ v. 批準

treaty /?tri?ti/ n. 條約

Senate 參議院

partisan /?pɑ?rt?zn/ a. 黨派的

autonomy /???tɑ?n?mi/ n. 自治

parliament /?pɑ?rl?m?nt/ n. 議會;國會

legislative /?led??sle?t?v/ a. 立法的

administrative /?d?m?n?stre?t?v/ a. 行政的

judicial /d?u?d??l/ a. 司法的

constitution /?kɑ?nst??tu??n/ n. 憲法;章程

 

四,總結

縱觀托福考試改革之后的趨勢往往還是不乏出現一些較為特別,陌生和較難的話題內容。尤其是像美國政治和愛因斯坦相對論這些話題建議考生們可以課下多去總結積累,尤其是多通過BBC和Wikipedia網站了解一下有關自己薄弱環節和不熟悉話題的背景知識的補充,也希望大家能攻克難關拿到自己理想的托福分數


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